Sejarah Pahlawan Indonesia (English)


When Sultan Hamengkubuwono IV had a sudden death in 1822, Prince Menol who was just 3 years old, pointed to replace him by the Dutch agreement. Because he was still a child, a Custody Council was formed to accompany Sultan in governing. The Council was consisted of the consort of Sultan Hamengkubuwono III, Sultan’s mother (the consort of Sultan Hamengkubuwono IV), Prince Mangkubumi (the son of Sultan Hamengkubuwono) and Prince Diponegoro (the son of Hamengkubuwono III).

The members of the council were eliminated and replaced gradually by Patih Danurejo IV who was strongly in the Dutch side. The disappointment of the kingdom government, who was strongly influenced by the Dutch political, caused Prince Diponegoro spent a lot of time in Tegalrejo. Outside the palace, there was a big disappointment in most of proletarians, especially from farmers. It was caused by tax pressure and compulsory works, the King’s policy that was allowing land renting in foreign-private plantations. In addition, foreigners rented the aristocrats’ lands.

In such that difficult life, the proletarian had founded a way inside of Prince Diponegoro. It was shown when a disturbance was happened because of the making of a street through Tegalrejo land was not permitted by Diponegoro. The incident of the street stake installation in July 20th 1925 was not solved by both sides.

In the efforts of Prince Mangkubumi, Resident Smisaert invited Prince Diponegoro to come to the resident office but it was refused. As the result, Prince Mangkubumi was threatened because of his failure in softening Diponegoro. When Prince Mangkubumi was going to write some answers to Residen, the Dutch soldiers was on first attacking using cannon. With Mangkubumi, Diponegoro ran away through the side door. Houses, mosque, and his properties were burned out. Afterwards, Diponegoro concentrated on his defense in Selarong.

The supports for Diponegoro’s struggle had become wider, not limited to farmers and princes but a lso to the te achers of islam. They joined altogether included a great teacher of islam Kyai Mojo and Sentot Alibasyah Prawirodirdjo, an aristocrat who had become as the main commander soon. General de Kock had sent letter to Diponegoro two times, dated August 7th 1825 and August 14th 1825 to offer a piece. Those offers were not responded. Then, the Dutch rewarded 20.000 ringgits to anyone who could catch Diponegoro dead or alive. The Dutch efforts were failed because the proletarian were still loyal to their leader.
In every battle, like in Kedu, Kulon Progo, Gunung Kidul, Sukowati, Semarang, Madiun, Magetan and Kediri the Dutch had not got any good progress.

Apparently, the Dutch realized the loyalty oh the people to their leader whom they considered as the reincarnation of Ratu Adil or Erucakra. Because of that, in 1827 the tactic “stelsel fort” was applied. In every area where the Dutch had a full power, a fort was built which was connected with the previous fort by the street infrastructure, supplies, and a regular soldier patrol. This strategy brought a progress such as several commanders like those that Sentot Alibasyah and Prince Mangkubumi were captured. Nevertheless, the struggle of Diponegoro was kept on going and had grown some antipathies from the people to the Dutch Government.

Then, General de Kock started another strategy called “negotiation table” by inviting Diponegoro in negotiating. Secretly, he instructed his soldiers if the negotiation was failed then Diponegoro must to be captured. As the prediction before, the Prince refused the regulations from the Dutch. As a result, in 28th of March 1830, the warrior from Tegalrejo was captured and sent into exile in Manado. A few later on, he was sent to Ujungpandang until he died on January 8th 1855.

By Abdul Khalil

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